Rajan Kumar

rajan published an article

2 months, 1 week ago

Implement a Dictionary using Trie


In this article I'll implement a dictionary using Trie Data Structure. We'll discusss implementation of a dictionary using Trie (memory optimization using hash-map).

Let's take a problem and that requires dictionary to solve, this way we'll understand the in better way.

 

Problem

There are some name of students and we have their corresponding marks. Now the problem is to tell the marks of a student when his/her name is given as input.

 

Approach 

There are other ways to solve this problem also but here, we'll store students and their marks in a dictionary. 

Student name will be the key and his/her mark will be value.

We'll implement this dictionary using Trie. Trick is to add an extra data to the node of trie. i.e the mark of student. Whenever a new query is made, we'll search for that name of student in the Trie and if it is found, we'll return the value we are storing with it. Otherwise we'll return -1.

 

Implementation

// C++ implementation of the approach 

#include <bits/stdc++.h> 
using namespace std; 

// Structure for Trie 

struct Trie { 
	bool isEndOfName; 
	unordered_map<char, Trie*> map; 
	int marks; 
}; 


// Function to create a new Trie node 
Trie* getNewTrieNode() 
{ 
	Trie* node = new Trie; 
	node->isEndOfName = false; 
	return node; 
} 


// Function to insert a student with its marks
// in the dictionary built using a Trie 


void insert(Trie*& root, const string& str, 
			const int& marks) 
{ 

	// If root is null 
	if (root == NULL) 
		root = getNewTrieNode(); 

	Trie* temp = root; 

	for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) { 
		char x = str[i]; 

		// Make a new node if there is no path 
		if (temp->map.find(x) == temp->map.end()) 
			temp->map[x] = getNewTrieNode(); 

		temp = temp->map[x]; 
	} 

	// Mark end of Name and store the meaning 
	temp->isEndOfName = true; 
	temp->marks = marks; 
} 


// Function to search a student in the Trie and return its marks if it exists

 
string getMarks(Trie* root, const string& student) 
{ 

	// If root is null i.e. the dictionary is empty 
	if (root == NULL) 
		return "-1"; 

	Trie* temp = root; 

	// Search a student in the Trie 

	for (int i = 0; i < student.length(); i++) { 
		temp = temp->map[student[i]]; 
		if (temp == NULL) 
			return "-1"; 
	} 

	// If it is the end of a valid name stored then return its marks
 
	if (temp->isEndOfName) 
		return temp->marks; 
	return "-1"; 
} 

// Main function
 
int main() 
{ 
	Trie* root = NULL; 

	// Build the dictionary 
	insert(root, "Alice", 80); 
	insert(root, "Pooja", 85); 
	insert(root, "Ramesh", 83); 
	insert(root, "Mark", 88); 
	
	string str = "Mark"; 
	cout << getMarks(root, str); 

	return 0; 
} 

 

Output

88

 





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